The rover or explorer Zhurong (title of a god of fireplace from Chinese language mythology) landed this Saturday at 07:18 native time (01:18 Spanish peninsular time) in a plain of Utopia Planitia, within the northern hemisphere of the planet, after which he managed to ship alerts to Earth, in response to China Nationwide Area Administration (CNSA).
“The Martian exploration mission has been a complete success,” mentioned the director of the CNSA, Zhang kejian, from the Beijing Aerospace Management Heart after touchdown was confirmed.
It took greater than an hour to verify the success, because the Zhurong needed to first deploy its photo voltaic panels and antennas to ship alerts, which in flip take about 17 minutes to achieve Earth because of the nice distance that separates each planets.
An “extraordinarily difficult” touchdown
The Tianwen-1 mission (Inquiries to Heaven, in Mandarin) consists of an orbiter, a touchdown module and the rover or explorer
The mission Tianwen-1 (Inquiries to Heaven, in Mandarin) – made up of an orbiter, the touchdown module and the rover or explorer – reached the orbit of Mars on February 11, after touring for seven months by area and touring 475 million kilometers .
The capsule with the module and the rover separated from the orbiter at 04:00 native time (22:00 peninsular time) and descended in the direction of the pink planet for 3 hours. Then, it entered the environment of Mars, at a peak of 125 kilometers above its floor, and commenced the riskiest part of the mission.
They’re recognized by specialists because the “seven minutes of terror” (though on this case they might be some extra), when the velocity of the ‘lander’ should be considerably lowered as a way to successfully launch and every little thing is managed autonomously by the orbiter and capsule, because of the time it takes for its alerts to achieve Earth.
The velocity of the ship then slowed 4.eight kilometers per second to 460 meters per second and a big 200-square-meter parachute was deployed to proceed cushioning his fall to 100 meters per second.
The velocity of the spacecraft was lowered from 4.eight kilometers per second on the entrance to the environment to 460 meters per second
Quickly after, the parachute and the outer shell of the capsule – which protects it from the excessive temperatures produced by the collision with the Martian environment – had been indifferent and the module’s retro rocket was activated to additional decelerate to virtually zero.
About 100 meters from the floor, the machine hovered for a couple of moments to determine doable obstacles and measure the unevenness, after which it chosen a comparatively flat space and slowly descended, touchdown successfully on it with its 4 shock-absorbing arms.
9 minutes “of terror”
The seven minutes of terror on this case had been 9, in an “extraordinarily difficult operation, which needed to be carried out by the spacecraft autonomously”, as defined by the CNSA spokesman, Gee yan.
“Every step had just one probability and the actions had been carefully associated. If there had been an error, every little thing would have failed ”, Gen acknowledged. The truth is, the diploma of world success in touchdown is under 50% and many of the failed makes an attempt have occurred in the course of the descent.
“That is an especially correct operation that entails a number of applied sciences, together with the aerodynamic design of the capsule, parachute and engine of the retrorocket to attain a easy touchdown,” he mentioned. Solar Zezhou, chief designer of the mission.
Every step had just one probability and the actions had been carefully associated. If there had been a mistake, every little thing would have failed
Gee Yan, CNSA spokesperson
For comparability, the Prop-M of Mars 3, the mission of the previous USSR that managed to land the world’s first explorer on the planet in 1971 (and the one Soviet that succeeded) stopped sending alerts simply 20 seconds later and failed.
Launch of the Tianwen-1 provider rocket on July 23 in Wengchan, China. CGTN. . / Str / File
In the hunt for ice in Utopia Planitia
China thus turns into the first nation to journey to Mars, enter its orbit and discover it in a first mission, for which it has invested near $ eight billion (6,596 million euros).
The Zhurong, whose title has resonances with the Chinese language title for Mars, Huoxin (planet of fireplace), will spend between seven and eight days detecting the environment of the touchdown web site and checking its gear earlier than getting off the transporter module and shifting throughout the floor of the ship. planet.
With six wheels, outfitted with photo voltaic panels that give it an look paying homage to a blue butterfly and weighing 240 kilos, he plans to discover the composition of the planet for about 90 Martian days (93 Earth days) and search for indicators of ice.
With this touchdown, China turns into the first nation to journey to Mars, enter its orbit and discover it in a first mission
It’s believed that Utopia Planitia, the place the mission explorer additionally landed in 1976 Viking 2 from NASA, comprises massive quantities of ice under the floor.
Zhurong has superior instrumentation, together with two panoramic cameras, a ground-penetrating radar, and a magnetic area detector.
It additionally has a laser that you need to use to investigate rocks and research their composition, in addition to meteorological devices to check the local weather and climate on Mars.
After separating from the entry capsule module, the orbiter returned to its parking orbit across the planet, from the place it can help in communications between the rover and Earth.
The orbiter has an estimated life time of a martian 12 months or 687 Earth days.
Lastly, China has constructed Asia’s largest steerable radio telescope with a 70-meter diameter antenna within the northeastern metropolis of Tianjin to obtain information from Tianwen-1.